Download Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF Free

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Download Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF Free

This book for the subject of Physiology by Becker is one of the best books a medical student can find out in the market. This book covers all the essential topics and information for the subject of physiology that will appear in the USMLE Step 1 Exams. It is in competition with the Kaplan books and stands nothing less behind. Download it now for the best scores.

The Author

becker's-usmle-step-1-lecture-notes-physiology-pdf

Lionel Raymon received his Doctorate in Pharmacy in 1989 from the University of Bourgogne, School of Medicine and Pharmacy in Dijon France. After an internship in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, he joined the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Addiction Research Center where he studied brain imaging in AIDS dementia as a Research Associate in the Department of Neuropharmacology with Dr. E. London. He then joined the University of Maryland at Baltimore School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.  Under the mentoring of Dr. M. Eldefrawi, he graduated with a Ph.D. in 1994, studying cocaine binding sites, dopamine reuptake inhibition and possible leading chemicals to treat dependency states.As a post doctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. D. Mash at the National Parkinson Foundation, University of Miami School of Medicine, he worked on preclinical and clinical studies related to ibogaine, a potential anti-addictive drug. It is during the pharmacokinetic characterization of this drug (Phase I trial) that Dr. Raymon was introduced to the field of Forensic Toxicology, thanks to the support and help of Dr. W. Hearn’s laboratory at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Office. Dr. Raymon joined Chip Walls’ laboratory where he worked as a Program Specialist from July 1996 to January 2003. He developed analytical methods related to drug monitoring in biological specimens, forensic testing and epidemiological studies. His interest is in the understanding of impairment related to drug use, in driving under the influence and sexual assault cases.  Dr. Raymon is now Clinical Associate Professor of Pathology at NOVA Southeastern School of Osteopathic Medicine.

Table of Contents of Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF

Listed below are all the chapters and units in the Becker’s Usmle Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF.

Unit 1 Body Fluids
Chapter 1 Body Fluids and Cells . …….. .. …. . …….. . ……… . ……. . 1-1
1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. ………. 1-1
2 Darrow-Yannet Diagram …. …… . . . . . ….. ….. …… . . . . . … 1-3
3 Tonicity Effects on the Red Blood Cell … …… ….. ….. …… ….. 1-7
4 Interstitial Fluid (ISF) vs. Vascular Fluid (VF) ……….. ……….. .. 1-7
5 Tracers to Measure Specific Body Compartments ……… ….. ……. 1-10
6 Distribution of Intravenous Fluids … ……………. …… ……. 1-10
7 Edema ……….. ….. …………….. ….. ………… 1-11
Unit 2 Cell Physiology
Chapter 2 Membrane Transport ………•………………………….. 2-1
1 Diffusion (Simple Diffusion) ……… ………. ……….. ……. 2-1
2 Carrier-Mediated Transport ……. ……….. ……….. …….. 2-2
Chapter 3 Membrane Potential . ………………………………………. 3-1
1 Introduction …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. …… … 3-1
2 Membrane Potential vs. Equilibrium Potential ……….. ……….. .. 3-2
3 Membrane Conductance ………………….. …… ………. 3-5
4 Characteristics of a Typical Cell .. ….. . . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . 3-6
Chapter 4 The Neuron Action Potential …………………………….. . 4-1
1 Introduction …… ….. ….. …… . . . . . …… ….. …… … 4-1
2 Components of the Neuron Action Potential. …….. ………. ……. 4-2
3 Membrane Channels … …… ……………. ….. ………… 4-3
4 Voltage vs. Conduction Changes During the Action Potential … …… ….. 4-4
5 The Overall Response … …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. 4-5
6 Absolute Refractory Period = Functional Refractory Period ……….. …. 4-6
7 Factors Determining the Velocity of the Action Potential ….. ………… 4-7
Chapter 5 Synaptic Transmission . …… . …….. . …. . …. . …….. . ….. 5-1
Introduct ion ……….. … .
The Neuromuscular Junction … .
3 Neuron-Neuron Synapses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …… ….. …… .. 5-3
4 Transmitters …. ……………. ….. ……………… …. 5-5
Chapter 6 Cardiac Electrophysiology … . .•. .. … . …. . …. . … . …. . …. . . 6-1
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. . . . . . ….. … 6-1
2 The Ventricular Action Potential . . . . . . . . . . . …… . . . . . ….. …. 6-3
3 Slow Fiber Action Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . …… ……….. . . . 6-6
Effect of Autonomic Fibers …. .
Overdrive Suppression ….. . . .
Electrocardiography ….. . . . . .

Unit 3 Muscle Physiology
Chapter 7 The Muscle Cell ………………………………………. 7-1
1 Organization of a Muscle Cell ………….. ….. …………….. 7-1
2 Organization of Actin and Myosin Filament …. ….. …… ….. . . . . . . 7-3
3 Organization Within Thin and Thick Fi laments of Skeletal and
Cardiac Muscle ……………….. …… ……………. . . . 7-5
4 Cross-Bridge Cycling: The Sliding Filament Theory of
Muscle Contraction … …… ….. ….. …… ….. . . . . . …… .. 7-7
Chapter 8 Excitation-Contraction Coupling •…… . …….. . …….. .. …… 8-1
1 Skeletal Muscle . . ………………………………….. 8-1
2 Cardiac Muscle …. ……………………………….. … 8-3
3 Smooth Muscle .. ….. . . . . . . ….. …… ……………. ….. 8-5
4 Electrical-Mechanica l Coupling: Skeletal vs. Cardiac Muscle . . . . . …… … 8-7
Chapter 9 Skeletal Muscle Mechanics . ….•…… . ……………… . …… 9-1
1 Length-Tension Relationships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …………….. 9-1
Sarcomere Length vs. Cross-Bridg1e Cycling .. …
Force-Velocity Relationships: In Vivo Muscles at L0
Chapter 10 Cardiac Muscle Mechanics …. . … . …………. . …. . …….. 10-1
1 Introduction ………………………………………. 10-1
2 Skeletal vs. Cardiac Muscle Mechanics .. ……….. ….. …… …. 10-3
3 Ventricular Function Curves … ……………. …… ……….. 10-7
4 Heart Rate (HR) and Cardiac Output (CO) ………….. ….. …… 10-11
Unit 4 The Circulation of Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF
Chapter 11 General Aspects of The Circulation ……… . ……………… . 11-1
1 Introduction …… ….. ….. . . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . . .. 11-1
2 Pulmonary Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …… . . . . . 11-2
3 Systemic Circuit ……… ………. ……………………. 11-3
4 Hemodynamics …………………………………….. 11-5
5 Series vs. Parallel Resistances … ……….. ….. …… …….. 11-10
6 The Systemic Arterial System …. ….. …… ….. ….. …… .. 11-12
7 Venous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
8 Gravity ……… ………. ……….. ……….. …….. 11-18
9 Nervous Reflexes in the Control of Blood Pressure … …… ….. ….. 11-19
Chapter 12 Regulation of Systemic Blood Flow ……… . …….. . …….. . . 12-1
1 Extrinsic Regulation of Systemic Arterioles . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. … 12-1
2 Autoregulation in Systemic Tissues …………… ….. ………. 12-2
3 The Coronary Circulation … …… . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . . .. 12-4
4 The Cerebral Circulat ion …. ….. ….. . . . . . …… …… …… . 12-7
5 The Cutaneous Circulation …… ………………………… 12-8
6 Skeletal Muscle ……… ……….. ……….. ……….. .. 12-8
7 Gastrointestinal . . ……. ….. ……….. ….. …… …….. 12-9
8 Renal Circulat ion ….. …… ….. …… ….. …… ….. ….. 12-9
9 Fetal Circulation ……… ………. ……….. ……….. .. 12-10
Unit 5 Cardiovascular Integration and Heart Disease in Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF
Chapter 13 Cardiac Output: Integration of Cardiac and Vascular Factors .•….•.. 13-1
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. ………… . 13-1
2 Graphical Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …… . . . . . …… .. 13-2
3 Measurement of Cardiac Output. . . . . . . . . . . . …… . . . . . ….. … 13-6
Chapter 14 The Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds •.•..•.•.•..•.•.•..•.•.••.•. 14-1
1 The Complete left-Sided Cycle ……… …… …………….. . 14-1
2 The Cycle Phases ……… ………………………….. . . 14-2
3 Cardiac Listening Posts … …… ….. ….. ……. . . . ……. … 14-6
4 Heart Sounds .. …… ….. . . . . . …… ….. …… . . . . . ….. 14-6
5 Systemic Venous Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8
6 Pressure-Volume Loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
7 Pulmonary Wedge Pressure …. . …. …… . . . . . ….. 14-11
Chapter 15 Pathophysiology of the Cardiac Cycle …•.••.•.•..•…•….•.•.. 15-1
1 Valvular Heart Disease ……………………………….. . 15-1
2 Aortic Stenosis …….. ………. ……….. …………… 15-4
3 Shunting of Blood .. …… ….. ….. …… ……………. .. 15-6
4 Heart Failure … …… ……………. ….. …… ….. ….. 15-8
Unit 6 Pulmonary Physiology
Chapter 16 Anatomy ……………… .. …………………………. 16-1
Anatomy … …… …….. .
Blood Supply … …… ….. .
Innervation of Airways ……. .

Chapter 17 Lung Volumes and Capacities ••.•.•.•..•….•…•..•.•.•..•… 17-1
1 The Lungs … …… ….. ….. …… ….. ……. . . . …… .. 17-1
Chapter 18 Air Flow ….. . …….. . … .. …. . …….. . …. . ………. . 18-1
1 Resistance of the Airways … …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… . 18 -1
2 Ventilation and Dead Space … …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… 18-3
3 Regulation of Alveolar Vent ilation … ……………. …… ……. 18-6
Muscles of Respiration …. .
Abnormal Breathing Patterns … .
Chapter 19 Lung Mechanics … . …. . … • …….. .. …………….. . .. . 19-1
1 Forces on the Lung System … ……………. …… ……….. 19-1
2 The Normal Restful Cycle . . . …… …… ….. ….. …… ….. . 19-3
3 Positive Pressure Ventilation .. ….. …… ….. ……………. . 19 -5
4 Pneumothorax . . . …… ….. ….. . . . . . …… …… …… . . . 19-7
5 Lung Compliance … …… ….. . . . . . …… ….. …… . . . . . .. 19 -8
Chapter 20 Gas Exchange in the Lung ………… . ……………… . …. 20-1
1 Introduction …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. …… .. 20-1
2 Factors Determining Alveolar PC02
••• •••••• ••••• ••••• •••••• ••••• • 20-2
3 Factors Determining Alveolar P0 2
••• •••••• ••••• ••••• •••••• ••••• •• 20-3
4 Fick Law of Diffusion …. ….. ………… . . . . . ….. ……… 20-4
5 Diffusion Capacity Oleo . . . . . . ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. 20-6
Chapter 21 Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport …… . …. . … . ……… . 21-1
1 Oxygen Transport .. …… ….. . . . . . …… ….. …… . . . . . .. 21-1
2 Carbon Dioxide Transport .. ….. …… . . . . . …… ….. ….. . . . 21 -6
3 Hemoglobin Dissociat ion Curve vs. C02 Dissociat ion Curve ……… ….. 2 1-7
Chapter 22 Five Major Causes of Hypoxemia . . . …. . …………. . …. . … . 22-1
1 High Alt itude . . . …… ….. …… . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . 22-1
2 Hypoventilation ….. …… ….. …… . . . . . ….. …… ….. . 22-3
3 Diffusion Impairment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ….. …… 22-4
4 Pulmonary Shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …… ….. .. 22-5
5 Ventilat ion-Perfusion Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … ….. ….. 22-6
Unit 7 Renal Physiology
Chapter 23 Rena I Physiology . … ………………………………… 23-1
1 Basic Concepts …….. ………. ……….. ……….. …. 23-1
2 Renal Structural and Functional Anatomy ….. …… …… . . . . . …. 23-2
Chapter 24 Glomerular Filtration …………………………………. 24-1
1 The Glomerulus … ……………. …… ….. …… ….. … 24-1
2 Glomerular Capillary Hemodynamics ……… …… ………….. 24-2
3 Filtration Barrier ……….. ……….. ……….. ………. 24-3
4 Pathophysiology … …… ….. ….. …… …… . . . . . ….. … 24-4
5 Determinants of Glomerular Fi ltrat ion Rate . . . . . ….. . . . . . …… 24-6
6 Overall Flow Distribution Within the Kidney. . . . . . ……………. 24-8
7 Filtered Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………. 24-9
Chapter 25 Renal Function and the Concept of Clearance . ……………….. 25-1
1 General Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………. .. 25-1
2 Renal Transport and Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………… 25-3
3 Concept of Free Water and Free Water Clearance. . ……………… 25-6
Chapter 26 Dynamics of Renal Transport: Reabsorption and Secretion ………. 26-1
1 Reabsorption … …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… . . . . . ….. 26-1
2 Secretion ………………………………………… 26-3
3 Graphical Representation of the Clearance of Some Substance Types ……. 26-4
4 Net Transport in the Nephron .. …… ….. ….. …… . . . . . ….. 26-6
Chapter 27 Regional Transport Along the Nephron …………………….. 27-1
1 Proximal Tubule. . ………………………………….. 27-1
2 Loop of Henle …. ……………………………….. … 27-4
3 Early Distal Tube …… ….. . . . . . …… ….. ……………. 27-6
4 Late Dista l Tubule and Collecting Duct …… ….. …… . . . . . ….. . 27-7
5 Renal Failure (Decreased GFR) ……….. …… ……………. 27-9

Unit 8 Acid-Base Physiology
Chapter 28 Introduction . ……….. . .. . …………… . …………… 28-1
1 General Principles ……….. ……….. ……….. ……… 28-1
2 Acid-Base Regulation …. ….. ….. . . . . . . ….. …… …… . . . 28-3
3 Homeostasis and the Steady State Situation … …… ….. ….. ….. 28-4
4 The Primary Disturbances ……… ………. ……….. ……. 28-6
5 Determining a Primary Problem … ……………. …… …….. 28-8
6 Compensation … …… ….. ……………. …… …….. 28-10
7 Plasma Anion Gap …… ….. ……………. …… …….. 28-13
8 Davenport Diagram …………………………………. 28-14
9 Pathophysiology of Potassium Dynamics ………….. ….. ……. 28-16
10 Renal Response to Acid-Base Disorders ….. . . . ……. ….. …… 28-17
Unit 9 G astrointestina l Phy siology
Chapter 29 Structure of the GI Tract . …. . … .. … . …. . …………. . … 29-1
1 Structure of the GI Tract ……… ………. …… …………. 29-1
2 The Mouth and Salivary Secretion …………………………. 29-3
3 The Stomach . …….. ….. ……………. …… ………. 29-6
4 The Small Intestine .. ….. …………….. ….. ……….. 29-11
5 The Colon ……… ….. ……………. …… ……….. 29-19
Unit 10 Endocrinology Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF
Chapter 30 Introduction to Endocrinology . …. . …….. . …….. .. …….. 30-1
1 General Characteristics … …… ……………. ….. ……… 30-1
2 Analysis of Hormone Levels ……… ………. ……….. …… 30-3
3 General Pathophysiology ……… ………. …… …………. 30-4
4 Hormonal Feedback ….. …… …… . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . 30-6
Chapter 31 Pancreatic Hormones . .. . …. • …. . … .. … . ……… . … . … 31-1
1 The Pancreatic I slet Cells ………………………………. 31-1
2 Control of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion …………………….. 31-3
3 Specific Actions of Insulin … …… . . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . .. 31-6
4 Diabetes Mellitus . …… …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… … 31-8
Chapter 32 Anterior Pituitary . ……………… . …. . …………. . …. 32-1
1 General Characteristics ………….. ….. ……………….. 32-1
2 Pathophysiology … …… ….. ….. …… ……….. ….. … 32-3
3 Growth Hormone … ……………. …… ….. …… ….. .. 32-5
4 Growth and Growth Hormone ……….. ….. …………….. . 32-7
Chapter 33 Posterior Pituitary . .. . ……… . ……… . …………. . …. 33-1
1 General Characteristics … …… ….. ….. …… . . . . . …… … 33-1
2 Role of ADH … …… ……………. ….. …… . . . . . ….. . 33-2
3 Actions of ADH on the Kidney ……….. ……….. ………… 33-4
4 Diabetes Insipidus ……………… ….. …………….. . . 33-5
5 Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH) … ……. . . . …… 33-6
6 A Differential Diagnosis … . . . . . . ….. ….. …………….. … 33-7
Chapter 34 The Adrenal Glands ………•.. . ……………… . ……… 34-1
1 Adrenal Cortex …….. ………. ……….. …………… 34-1
2 Pathways in the Synthesis Steroid Hormones ………………….. 34-3
3 Steroid Hormone Synthesis in the Adrenal Cortex .. …… . . . . . ….. .. 34-5
4 Physiologica l Stress Actions of Cortisol ……… ….. ….. . . . . . …. 34-7
5 Control of Cortisol Secretion ………… ………. ……….. . . 34-8
6 Physiological Role of Aldosterone ……… ………. ……….. . . 34-9
7 Control of Aldosterone Secretion . . . . . …… ….. ……. . . . . .. .. 34-11
8 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide … . . . . . . ….. ….. …………….. . 34-13
9 Pathophysiology … ……………………………….. .. 34- 14
10 Adrenal Medulla ……… ………. ……….. …………. 34-23
Chapter 35 Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis ………. . …. . ……….. 35-1
1 Introduction …… ….. ….. …… ….. ……. . . . ……. .. 35-1
2 Interrelat ionships of Calcium and Phosphate …………………… 35-2
3 Parathyroid Hormone …………………………………. 35-2
4 Vitamin D …. ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. . . . . . …… . 35-3
5 Calcitonin …. ….. ……………. …… …… . . . . . . . . .. . 35-4
6 PTH-Related Peptide …. ………. ……….. ….. ……….. 35-4
7 Bone Physiology …….. ………. ……….. ……….. … 35-5
8 Regulation of ECF Calciium and Phosphate ……… …… ….. ….. 35-6
9 Pathophysiology … …… ….. ……………. …… …….. 35-8
Chapter 36 Thyroid . …… . …. . … . ……… . … .. … . …….. .. … . . 36-1
1 Introduction ………………………………………. 36-1
2 The Thyroid Follicle .. …… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. . 36-2
3 Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroid! Hormones ……… ….. ……… 36-3
4 Iodothyronine Structure and Activity ……………………….. 36-6
5 Thyroid Hormone Transport ……… ……………………… 36-7
6 Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion …. . . . . . ….. ….. …… . 36-8
7 Physiological Actions of Thyroid Hormones . . . . ….. …… ….. . . . . . 36-9
8 Thyroid Hormone in Pregnancy …………… ….. ………… 36-10
9 Tests of Thyroid Function ……………………………… 36-11
10 Hypothyroidism ……… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. .. 36-13
11 Thyrotoxicosis and Hyperthyroidism ………….. ….. ………. 36-15
12 Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis ……………. …… ………. 36-16
13 Goiter ………………………………………….. 36-16

Chapter 37 The Male Reproductive System of Becker’s USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Physiology PDF …………. . …………….. . 37-1
1 Testicular Function … …… ….. . . . . . .. . … ….. ……. . . . .. 37-1
2 Hypothalamic- Pituitary- Testicular Axis … . . . . . . ….. ….. …… . . 37-5
3 Sexual Differentiation and Age-Related Changes in Testosterone Secretion … 37-7
4 Overall Physical Changes at Puberty ……………………….. 37-10
5 Hypogonadism ……… ….. ….. …… ….. …… ….. … 37-11
Chapter 38 The Female Reproductive System …… . ……………… . …. 38-1
1 The Ovarian Follicle ………………………………….. 38-1
2 The Female Reproductive System and Uterine Cycle ………………. 38-3
3 The Ovarian Menstrual Cycle … …… ….. ….. …… ….. ….. 38-5
4 Pregnancy . . ……. ….. ……….. . . . . . …… ……….. 38-13

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